[backwards] 27-yogapati cycle, mediaeval [viz., with the naks.atra-s already assigned to their modern regents] derivative from Iranian, but "not used by the Achaemenids" (ZC, p. 204) and imported "by the Parthians from Central Asia":--

yoga-pati---------------------------------------------------------Zarathustrian day-regent

1. Yama, "judge of the dead" (CDHM, p. 374) [substituted for Dharma-raja]

18. Ras^nu, weigher of deeds of the dead (D&TZ, p. 303)

2. Vis.n.u [substituted for S`RAVana "ear"]

17. SRAOs^a, "hearing, listening" (D&TZ, p. 94)

3. Candra, an epithet of (VM, p. 127) MITRA

16-15. MITRA

4. Brahma

14. Geus^

5. Br.has-pati [substitute for TIS.YA -- B&T]

13. TIS^trYA

6. Candra [as indistinct from #3, praesumable intended name : Candra-Mas, where Mas is variant of MAM.SA]

12. Maonha (*MAM.SA]

7. Indra, rider on "white horse" (HP, p. 109)

11. Hvare-h^s^aetem, praesiding over white horse (HZ, p. 212)

8. +Ap-s "waters", "Varuna's wives" (D&TZ, p. 67)

10. +Apo "waters", "the wives (ahuranis) of Ahura [Mazdah]" (D&TZ, p. 65)

9. Sarpa "serpent" {cf. Aztec xiuh-coa "fire-snakes"; <ibri^ s`rapi^m "fiery snakes"}

9. ATAR "fire" {cf. AThARva Veda, devoted to Sarpa-s etc.; ATeRnus of the Pael-igni}

10. Agni, praesiding over year and time-wheel, according to R.c-Veda

7. Ameretat "immortality" = the swirling (like rotating wheel) elixir amr.ta

11. Surya (*SuLya)

6. Haurvatat (*SaLwatat)

12. +Pr.thivi "the earth"

5. +Spenta Armaiti "the earth herself" (HZ, p. 171)

[12-1/2. omitted -- should be Is`ana ?]

4. H^s^atra Vairya

13. Pavana [viz. Pavana-vyadhi, "counsellor of Kr.ishn.a" (VM, p. 325)

3. As^a Vahis^ta "best truth", ruling "Path of Righteousness"

14. Rudra "intelligent": "unhoused cattle are ... therefore especially consigned to his care" (VM, p. 75)

2. Vohu Manah "good mind": "The soul of the ox, then, appeals directly to the Good Mind" (D&TZ, p. 48)

15. Varun.a, god of ethics and truthfulness (D&TZ, pp. 67-68)

1. Ahura Mazda, god of ethics and truthfulness

16. Gan.a-is`a: "all manifestation is contained in his belly, ...Many vast universes" (HP, p. 297)

30. An-aghra "Space" (D&TZ, p. 249): "in fact the whole material creation contained within" (D&TZ, p. 224)

17. S`iva, whose epithet (TT, p. 103) is MANTRA

29. Matra Spenta -- MANTRA Spenta "formula holy" (HZ, p. 199)

18. KUveRa, praesiding over the Uttara ("northern") KURu [cf. Sumerian KUR "mountain" -- to their north, the Caucasus]

28. Zem -- Zamyat, whose Yas^t is "a description of the mountains of the world" (HZ, p. 231):

Kuvera had praeviously ruled (HP, p. 135) in the southern [direction of emerald linga, according to the S`iva Pura.na] island

this Yas^t "describes the origin of all mountains out of the heart of the central and primeval mountain" (ESL, p. 216), reminiscent of "the great emerald which is a root and a pivot for the mountain of [Qaf]" (WC, p. 309)

19. Vis`va-karman, who "disclosed the sky" (VM, p. 314)

27. Asman "sky"


26. +Ars^tat: "She co-operates with Mithra" (HZ, p. 193)

21. Kartikeya "the power of chastity" (HP, p. 299)

25. +As^i [Vanuhi], who is offended at adultresses (HZ, p. 209)

22. +Savitri, the required prayer (said daily)

24. Daena, religion

23. +Kamala "With a golden complexion, bathed ... from golden vessels" (HP, p. 284)

22. Vata": "He wears a holden helm and a golden crown, a golden necklace, and a golden garment; he has golden shoes and a golden girdle ..." (HZ, p. 220) = Norse Od, who wife +Freyja wept, for him, tears of gold

24. Gauri "white mustard'

21. Rama "savouriness of food" (HZ, p. 196)

25. As`vinau "divine physicians ... who heal diseases" (VM, p. 51):

20. Veretra-ghna "the most healing in health-giving" (HZ, p. 194):

As`vinau are Vad.aveyau, sons (CDHM, p. 30) of the "submarine fire" +Vad.ava {cf. "baptism with fire"}

Veretragna > Varhran > Bahram > Bihram: "Bihram ... is so closely associated with the rite of baptism" (SA, p. 65)

26. Pitar-s, who resemble (ERPP, p. 143) Fravas^i-s

19. Farvas^i-s -- Fravas^i-s



RCRC, p. 166

UA&M, p. 45


ZC = ARCHIV ORIENTA`LNI` C^ESKOSLOVENSKA` AKADEMIE VE^D ORIENTA`LNI` U`STAV, 35. Praha, 1967. pp. 197-207 Elias J. Bickerman: "The "Zoroastrian" Calendar."

CDHM = TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. John Dowson: A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

D&TZ = R. C. Zaehner: The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism. NY: Putnam's Sons, 1961.

VM = GRUNDRISS DER INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE UND ALTERTUMSKUNDE. III. Band, I. Heft A. A. A. MacDonell: Vedic Mythology. Strassburg: Trubner, 1897.

B&T = J. OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. London, 1911. pp. 1119-1122 John Faithful Fleet: "Br.ihaspati and Tishya."

HP = BOLLINGEN SERIES, LXXIII. Alain Danielou: Hindu Polytheism. NY: Pantheon Books, 1964.

HZ = Maneckji Nusservanji Dhalla: History of Zoroastrianism. Oxford U. Press, 1938.

TT = Agehananda Bharati: The Tantric Tradition. London: Rider & Co., 1965.

ESL = TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. Martin Haug: Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis. 3rd edn., enlarged by E. W. West. London: Trubner & Co., 1884.

WC = Gerard de Nerval: The Women of Cairo. London: Routledge & Sons, 1929. Vol II.

ERPP = James Hope Moulton: Early Religious Poetry of Persia. Cambridge U. Press, 1911.

RCRC = M. N. Saha: Report of the Calendar Reform Committee, Government of India. New Delhi, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1951.

UA&M = Eduard Stucken: Der Ursprung des Alphabets und die Mondstationen. Leipzig: Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1913.