Parzival (translated by in German by Wolfram von Eschenbach from the Provenzal translation by Kyot of the Spanish text written by Flegetanis of Toledo in Castilla, HG, p. 218) -- Identifications of Propre Names


Persons' Names

FeI[-]FeraZ = [contraction of name of] FIgueira da FoZ (in Beira)

TreVRizent = TaViRA (in Algarve)

FLEGEtaNis = FREGENal (in Extremadura of Espan~a)

ANFoRTAs = ANtequera + FRonTerA (both in Andalusi`a)

Par[-]ZIVAL = on a par with SeViLLa (in Andalusi`a)

ConDwiIamurS = [expansion of name of] CaDIZ (in Andalusi`a)

FRIMuTeL = PRIego + MoTiLla (both in Castilla la Nueva)

TituREL = TeRuEL (in Arago`n)


Places' Names

BRiZ[-]LJAN = viLLAfrANco del BieRZo (in Leo`n)

[written Feb 2017]



[Probably the assignment of the original text to the city Toledo is a joking litterary pun, based on the <ibriy word (Strong's 8435) /told-ow/ 'his (or her) posterity/history/annals'.]

[If "Kyot" be likewise a term from the TNAK, it may be >aramaic (Strong's7007) /qayit./, aequivalent to <ibriy (Strong's7019) /qayis./ 'summer' : both from the etymon /qayz./ 'heat of summer, midsummer' (DMWA, 4th edn, p. 942b). This could refer to the Cymry "Summerland", i.e., Paradise; Chinese (Wilder & Ingram 168) /Hsia4/ 'Summer', name of a dynasty having "seventeen kings" (CM&S, p. 262), thus resembling the British Vallum Hadriani, with "its chain of seventeen forts" (HG, p. 212). "There appear ... seventeen prominent maidens and ladies in the Parzival" (HG, p. 226).]

Persons' Names



IBL[-]IS = IstanBuL + IZmit (both on Sea of Marmara in Tu:rkiyeh)

queen BELA[-]CANe = BjELovAr + CAzMa river (in Croatia)

Erec's sister jeSCHUTe = lake SCUTari (at KrnaGora)

duchess CuNNEware = KoNYa (in Tu:rkiyeh)

queen GINo[-]VER = YIaNNitsa + VERRoia (both in Mak-edon)

OBIe = sUBotIca (in Voyvodina)

OBilOt = sOmBOr (in Voyvodina)

ITONje = mITOhiyaN (Kosovo)


females & males

Anfortas's sister queen (of Eccles) HERZE[-]LOYdE = HERCEgnovi + LjUbInjE (in HERCEgovina)

her husband GAH[-]MURet = GrAz (in Styria) on the MUR river

their son PaRZi[-]VAL = Po:RTschach + ViLLach (both in Carinthia)

who weddeth queen COnDwiRa[-]murs = shKODe:R (in Albania) + MURSili- (Kanesili king's name)

their son LOHEN[-]grin (= LOuvain/LeuvEN in Brabant) who went to Antwerp

author FLEGE[-]TANIS = FLEmish towns GhEnt + TAMISe (both in East Flanders)

Titurel's brother TREV[-]RiZEnt = TREyVaux + la RoCHE (both nigh Fribourg in Switzerland)

grail-king FRI[-]MUTEL = FRIbourg + NeUcha^TEL (both in Switzerland)

his son grail-king tiTURel = TURin (in Padania), or else winTerThUR and/or TURbEnthaL ( both nigh Zu:rich in Switzerland)

his son grail-king AnFORT[-]as = AmersFOORT (nigh Utrecht, Holland) + ASSen (in Drenthe)

[written 4 Mar 2017; these identifications look more likely than the Spanish ones.

It would also be more distinctive in making all males Germanic and all females Balkan/Anatolian.]



Strong's = Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

DMWA = Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic.

Wilder & Ingram = Analysis of Chinese Characters.

CM&S = A. Birrell : Classic of Mountains and Seas.

HG = N. L. Goodrich : The Holy Grail.

[I may have written some or most of these identifications some years earlier; if so, having forgotten and now redone them.]