NorthWest --Vayu the wind-god (personifying the wind-tunnel with its straight-blowing winds, in contrast to whirlwinds)

NorthWest --actual direction of <ol-mo-lun-rin (Olmaliq) from Bod, though variously said (A&S, pp. 481-3) to be to the W. or N.: approach to it is stated (A&S, p. 106) to be via "a great tunnel" pierced by "an arrow"

"... he enters a mountain through a cave which leads to the" world of the dead (TB, p. 51)

NorthWest --mountain to be traversed underground via tunnel, entrance whereto is guarded by "mad arrow" (laja) (ThWISh, p. 239)

NorthWest -- (LWhW, p. 112, fn. 19) as the direction of Maranai = Hawai'ian malanai "Name of a gentle breeze" (HD)

West -- Varun.a, cognate with [Hellenic] Olumpos the mountain

{Cf. [Aztec migration-myth of] Culhuacan the "bent mountain", known also to the Choctaw in their migration-myth}


West --overhanging mountain (ibid, p. 238)

West? -- the great mountain Tawhiti-nui (LWhW, p. 113)

Southwest -- +DANU (OWhT, p. 513): with the +DANa[W]ides, women who wore deadly hair-pins in their hair, cf. the "hair-bridge" (RRWD, p. 455) walked by the dead


SouthWest -- "bridge of terror" (titi rawan) (ibid., p. 240)


South -- Yama the ruler of the underworld


South ---Taheke-roa(?) long descent into Raro-hena = volcano of Whakaru-ai-moko

SouthEast -- Agni the fire-god, praesiding over cremations: cf.

"the circles of Yoginis that rise into the air at the conclusion of their cremation-ground rites" (KY, p. 231)


NorthWest (sic!: catasteric?) (H&E, p. 197) -- "Twenty-eight gods link their arms" (ibid., p. 196):

i.e., in circle. [These must be something other than the lunar mansions, who had been enumerated ibid., p. 127. Perhaps they are personified whirlwinds.]


SouthEast? -- Te Ara-tiatia "the way [via] steps", ascended taiapo ("arm-in-arm") (LWhW, p. 128) into the sky upon titi (whirlwinds)

East -- Indra "ruler"

"rulers .... dissolving back up the dmu thag ["sky rope"] at death and so leaving no corpses" (FBTB, p . 21)


East -- "suspended rope" for ascension at Ara-toi-huarewa "way dangling"

Of these, the Daoist, Iban, and Maori accounts are specifically asserted to be descriptions of alternative paths taken by souls of the dead.

A&S = Samten G. Karmay (ed.): The Arrow and the Spindle. Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu, 1998.

FBTB = Todd Allen Gibson: From Btsanpo to Btsan. PhD diss., Indiana U., 1991.

H&E = John S. Major: Heaven and Earth in Early Han Thought. State U. of NY Pr, 1993.

HD = Pukui & Elbert: Hawaiian Dictionary. U. Pr of HI, 1971.

KY = David Gordon White: Kiss of the Yogini. U. of Chicago Pr, 2003.

LWhW = S. Percy Smith (transl.): The Lore of the Whare-wananga. Part I. -- Te Kauwae-runga. New Plymouth (N.Z.): The Polynesian Society, 1913.

OWhT = John Ronald Newman: The Outer Wheel of Time. PhD diss., U. of WI at Madison, 1987.

RRWD = F. K. Litsas: "Rousalia: the Ritual Worship of the Dead." In:-- Agehananda Bharati: The Realm of the Extra-Human: Agents and Audiences. Mouton, The Hague. pp. 447-466

TB = Kristofer Schipper: The Taoist Body. Transl. from the French by Karen C. Duval. U. of CA Pr, 1993.

ThWISh = Clayton H. Chu: The Three Worlds of Iban Shamanism. PhD diss., Columbia U., 1978.