migration myths




Arrernte & Loritja



p. 185 "The skeleton [of the bora`ro] was ... revived ... The bora`ro rose and ... gave him a stick rattle and told him to plant it firmly in the ground at a certain place in the forest, whenever he wanted meat."


p. 143 "A pole (tnatanja) ... is constructed of spears ... by the "hidden people" ... who live in the earth. They emerge at night and implant their songs in the sleeping ..."


p. 173 "Waninga is a wooden framework ... in the form of a cross or double cross and covered with hair string, on which totemic pattern designs rendered in bird down." [used by the Loritja] {Cf. the Maori wananga; and Bon / Huichol "thread-cross"}


p. 138 people whose "body parts appeared to be grown together."

[p. 139 god "cut slits for their eyes, opened their ears, mouths, noses ...

Mis.rayim [, where in funereal ceremonies, "opening of the eyen" and "opening of the mouth" are performed for the dead, so that the dead can see & eat.]


p. 35 man piercing his own penis


he also circumcised and subincised them."]


p. 138 "struck the waters with a stick and commanded it to "go away". The sea retreated to the north ..."

14:16 Rod of Mos^eh caused the sea to withdraw: so, the people travelled over the dried-up sea-bed.


p. 104 the 2 Malpunga men, in the Numbakulla myth

>ahro^n & H.u^r, assistants of Mos^eh

The people traveled for a long time, guided by a magical pole. Each night, when the people stopped to camp, the pole was placed in the ground and in the morning the people would travel in the direction in which the pole leaned.

After traveling for an extremely long time, they finally came to a place where the pole remained upright.


p. 156 "the Sun Father ... thrust his stick in the ground, in the riverbank, wherever he stopped at a rapid. But the stick did not stand erect; it stood inclined. So he went on and tried again. But once more it stood inclined. He went on and on, and at last it stood straight, it stood upright; this was the spot. This happened at the Ipanore` Falls, and at the Rock of Nyi`."

p. 187 "a pole, the kauaua or nurtunja, is erected at every camp. ... The length of these poles appears to be important; longer seems better; short poles may be cause for embarrassment."

Rod of Mos^eh is used to draw water from the rock, after his embarrassment.

{explained as magnetic compass, in Book of Mormon}


p. 141 explained: "It is on the equator that the sun's rays fall vertically upon the earth, that is, that the ... stick rattle stands upright."


p. 29 foam

p. 140 "yaje` foam" (gahpi` soporo)


p. 30 rayed disk

p. 140 rattle of "the Sun Father"


[Cf. buttocks-print in rock left by Quetzalcoatl]

p. 137 "two hollow depressions made by the girl ["bright star" (planet Venus?) goddess]'s buttocks,


a chain of small holes or "drops" where she urinated".


p. 31 goddess yielding blood from her bodily "jewel"

p. 137 "bright star" (planet Venus?) goddess was asked for her favors while she was menstruating" by:


p. 32 god whose 2 heads are double-blade [cf. blade-in-the-moon]

her uncle the moon-god


p. 33 child

p. 135 "all the men turned upon the child and tore it to pieces."

p. 188, #4 "cut man to pieces"


p. 37 woman wearing mottled pantaloons


p. 188, #11 "Magpie women"


p. 37 red "jewel" platform stood on


p. 188, #13 "Stone on end to mark dancing place"


p. 38 living floating tree in water [deluge?]: banded living tree-log, floating {Cf. interpretation in Book of Mormon of liahona as magnetic compass: the simplest magnetic compass being a magnetized iron needle floating (by surface-tension) on water}


p. 189, #14 "Akakia trees shed plums like flood"

15:27 palm-trees


pp. 39-40 women enter Tlaltecuhtli (frog-god) containing white day-signs


p. 189, #17 "Frog, White Bat"


p. 40 two skull-headed goddesses


p. 189, #19 "Initiate two women"


p. 42 floppy-limbed man emerging from conch


p. 189, # 20 "Seen by Witchetty Grub man"


p. 42 floppy-limbed man being cooked in cauldron


p. 189, #23 "Witchetty Grub people" [witchetty grubs are eaten by humans]


p. 43 skull-headed goddess, under snake-mouthed leopard god


p. 190, #28 "Initiate woman": "Tjilpa" (marsupial "wildcat")


p. 44 tattooed-faced goddess


p. 190, #36 "Bandicoot men & women"


p. 44 angular serpent men


p. 191, #39 "Carpet-snake man"


p. 44 amputated human limbs {Cf. separate re-incarnation of each limb of deceased human, according to Z^uan Z^ou}


p. 191, #42 "Place where sound [of bullroarers] had come from"

[p. 140 re-incarnating souls appear as bullroarers]

16:11 murmurings


p. 45 white-spotted-headed god assaulted by bird; torsoless white-spotted deity-heads [on net]


p. 191, # 45 "Pigeon men & women"; "Tjurunga represents head"


p. 192, #59 "Hole where kauaua stood"


In this place, they laid to rest the bones of their ancestors, which they had carried in buffalo sacks from the original land in the west. The mound grew out of that great burial.

p. 45 churns; human skulls

p. 85 "he knocks three times with his stick rattle. Now the door opens before him and he enters the hill."

p. 193, #74 "hill for place of death"


p. 95 "Masters of Fish"

p. 193, #85 "Fish man"


p. 194, # 86 "Quail women"

16:13 quails


Codex Borgia

C. Reichel-Dolmatoff: The Shaman and the Jaguar. Temple U. Pr, Philadelphia, 1975.

Sam D. Gill: Storytracking: Texts, Stories, & Histories in Central Australia. Oxford U. Pr, 1998.



In the foregoing, the Australian may be unrelated to the Choctaw; for the Choctaw migration of the living was towards the southwest, whereas "the happy hunting grounds" [for those prae-destined to salvation] were "located in the southwestern horizon, and spirits ... sped their last journey ... in the direction of the southwest horizon." (Swanton, p. 219) This Australian sequence (containing, #17, Frog) is apparently aequivalent to a Choctaw "travel after death to the west" [for those prae-destined to damnation], at the end of which route "The wicked ... fall ... to ... where the trees are all dead, and the waters are all full of toads ...". (Swanton, p. 218)

Origin in state of Washington

subdivisions of the Choctaw

in Washington





possible numeric connections

Away from the Na-hon-lo (p. 32) / NEHuLLa,

[NEHaLem Tillamook of Oregon]

the Choctaw travelled south-eastward (p. 12), until


"their forty-third green corn dance in the wilderness" (p. 14) at

Among the S^ibo of Manc^uria, the hiyatun (divineress) "throws forty-three small pebbles to the ground and divines out of the configuration which they make. ...

Nunih Waya, the emergence-place of the 4 tribes who successively came forth "very wet and moist" [1st Muscogee, 2nd Cherokee, 3rd Chickasaw, 4th Choctaw] (pp. 35-36) --

Sometimes four chopsticks are immersed into water, and

there only at Nanih Waya would the post remain standing upright.

then the hiyatun tries to make them stand while calling the spirits by name. It is believed that if the chopsticks remain standing it means that the spirit in question is responsible for the malady." (p. 266)


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY, Bulletin 103. John R. Swanton: Source Material for the Social and Ceremonial Life of the Choctaw Indians. Washington (DC), 1931.

Shi Kun: "Shamanistic Practices among the Minorities of South-West China." In:- ISTOR Books, 2. Miha`ly Hoppa`l & Otto von Sadovszky: Shamanism: Past and Present. Budapest: Ethnographic Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1989.

Distinction between Choctaw & Chickasaw migration-myths:--

Choctaw: leaning pole, afterwards upright

p. 35 for Lono-makua the "long god", "the pole was let down ... but after[wards] the pole was set straight again"

Chickasaw: Hole (pit) containing Panti the hound http://www.lindasloveables.com/Introduction_Origin_Legends.htm

p. 343 the pit of the hairless hound -- "Hole-of-the-olohe" (ka-lua-olohe)

beasts eating own tails (Sh&J, p. 134)

p. 348 Ku-ilio-loa (erect hound-long) "loses both ears and tail"


Sh&J = C. Reichel-Dolmatoff: The Shaman and the Jaguar. Temple U. Pr, Philadelphia, 1975.

Martha Beckwith: Hawaiian Mythology. Yale U. Pr, 1940

another possible comparison:--

p. 31 blind goddess

p. 257 goddess Uli as blind

p. 32 scissors-headed god

p. 465 while Kana's head on on his grandmother Uli's lap, he is cut with axe by Niheu

p. 33 god in form of white rope

"Kana, born in the shape of a rope"

p. 34 god in the form of multiple-headed white rope

Kana: "His brothers bind him, but ... he breaks the bonds."

p. 43 tree with white rope

p. 466 tree of Kana

p. 44 birds tear out eyen

p. 467 "the plovers tear out his [Mo-i's] eyes"

p. 44 amputated human limbs

p. 467 "cutting the flippers of a turtle" [cf. Chinese: cut-off limbs of tortoise become sky-props]


p. 468 Tahitian Marere-nui-maru-to'a [= Maori Marere-tonga]


Codex Borgia

Martha Beckwith: Hawaiian Mythology. Yale U. Pr, 1940