Twin-Brethren Myth (for Musquakie), Episodes of = Naks.atra-Sequence

in mutually reverse sequence :

MesoAmerican day-signs compared with sequence in Musquakie myth (F-LMI)

1. Imix (Kic^e "Left-handed")

p. 7 counting coup {Cf. "The fifth, who was masked as an ocelot, ... fought with his left hand, being "left-handed," a peculiarity ascribed to Huitzilopochtli." (FPO&NWC, p. 12)}

2. Ik (Highland Maya Igh) 'Breath'

p. 7 "in his nose" resided the the self-transformative power of "the old man".

3. Akbal 'Night'

p. 6 "Something came at night, it tore the drum-head, it tore the clothes of the brothers, it growled, it was Moo-in, the bear."

4. Kan (Highland Maya Ghanan) : Ch.B. Maize-goddess

p. 5 "old women winnowing parched corn"

5. Chic-chan 'Twist-snake' {cf. "Zhulong or Zhuyin, Torch Dragon or Torch Shadow" (HChM, p. 104), having a "human face and a serpent's trunk" (HChM, p. 181)}

p. 5 from women who "had firebrands" were taken "thigh-bones" {onto the thigh of goddess Athene (or of goddess Atthis, according to Apollodoros 3:187 -- OCD, s.v. "Erichthonius") was ejaculated, by Hephaistos, semen whence was engendred herpetanthrope (human face, serpent trunk) Eri-khthonios}

6. Cimi [depicted as a skull]

p. 4 "kept a hard face"

7. Manik: Ch.B. parrot

p. 4 "the bird Hee-wa-nee-ka-kee"

8. Lamat [its glyph is a cross within a circle {repraesenting a map of the Earth among a great many AmerIndian tribes}]

p. 4 "The duck swam to the middle of the lake; she dived to the bottom." {This is similar to the Earth-Diving, often by a bird, in myths of various Siberian and North American tribes.}

9. Mul[-]uc : /uc/ 'louse'

p. 4 "louse"

[9. Aztec Atl 'water']

p. 3. "water-rat"

10. Oc 'staircase' {cf. a quay, a staircase up a riverbank}

p. 3 "on the bank" of a river

p. 15 "made rivers of tears"

p. 14 "arrows that came back to the bows." {cf. sacred Arrow in at Taj (/tajj/ 'copiously flowing')}

[10. Aztec Itzcuintli, often depicted as an ear]

p. 13 "A demon was an ear, great as a hillside. The ear sucked in children". {Kumbha-karn.a ('Pot-ear') is (according to the Rama-ayana) a huge devourer of monkeys ("SK" and "KBM").}

11. Chuen 'Monkey'

p. 13 " the hand sucked".

12. Eb 'Tooth'

p. 13 "all Kee's ... teeth fell in."

13. Ben [: Aztec Acatl, depicted as a spear]

p. 13 "the spear"

14. Ix : Ch.B. "bloody mouth"

p. 11 "His mouth was a man's length".

[15. Aztec Quauhtli 'eagle']

p. 10. " An eagle came down through the smoke-hole."

15. Men : Ch.B. "happy and cheerful"

p. 9 "they were happy".

16. Cib : Ch.B. Deer-god

p. 8 "Grandfather Antelope"

17. Caban interior of Earth

p. 8 "they fell through ... into a cave."

18. Edznab : Ch.B. "healthy"

p. 8 "they made medicine, they made themselves well."

19. Cauac 'Storm'

p. 8 "would not burn"

20. Hun-ahpu (who underwent, in Xibalba, an ordeal of being overheated)

p. 7 ordeal of being overheated

Ch.B. = Alfredo Barrera Vásquez & Silvia Rendón : El Libro de los Libros de Chilam Balam. Mexico : Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1948.

F-LMI = Maria Alicia Owen : Folk-Lore of the Musquakie Indians. London : Nutt, 1904.

FPO&NWC = Zelia Nuttall : The Fundamental Principles of Old and New World Civilizations: a Comparative Research ... . ARCHAEOLOGICAL & ETHNOLOGICAL PAPERS OF THE PEABODY MUS (HARVARD UNIV), Vol. 2. Cambridge (MA), 1901.

HChM = Lihui Yang & Deming An : Handbook of Chinese Mythology. ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara (CA), 1995.

OCD = Hammond & Scullard (edd.) : The Oxford Classical Dictionary.

"SK" = "The Story of Kumbhakarna".

"KBM" = "Kumbhakarna Battles the Monkeys".

{2. Highland Maya /IGH/ is cognate with the Umbrian city-name /IGUVium/, site of the Tabulae Iguvinae describing ritual duties of the priesthood named /Atiedii/ : perhaps = Skt /ati/ 'beyond' (Latin /at/ 'moreover') + Latin /hodie/ 'to-day' , referring to the superannuated (such as, the Musquakie "old man").}

{F-LMI, p. 13, sequence of "hand, ear, face" is also to be found in "MSP", p. 88, for the Toba of the Gran Chaco.}

"MSP" = Florencia C. Tola : "Materiality of Spiritual Presences ... in an Amerindian Society". In :- Ruy Blanes & Diana Espi`rito Santo (edd.) : The Social Life of Spirits. Univ of Chicago Pr, 2014. pp. 69-92.,_4.htm

also in reverse sequence :

compared with the naks.atra-s


Musquakie (F-LMI)

naks.atra-s according to the Yajus Veda samhita-s (VIN&S, pp. 413-19) : transl. from Monier-Williams


p. 16 Hot Hand "followed [but did not overtake] the sun over the road of ghosts; he sat down and dreamed of the good place [for souls of the righteous dead]. ... He sat down in the road where it divided {forked}. ... He is there now."

19. : Jaina asterism "Striding elephant" {The white poplar tree was brought back from "forked tongue" in the netherworld (DCM, s.v. "Heracles", p. 201a).} {Unsuccessful in his attempt to overtake the sun, "Kuafu ... abandoned his walking stick ... by ... his corpse" (Lie-zi -- HChM, s.v. "Kuafu", p. 156).}


p. 15 "He sat down on the edge of the world to dream." This was after he, having returned from death, had received, when his brother "pulled back the door-skin", "a little whistle to call ghosts." {When through "her doe-skin robe" a hunter "playfully threads the end of a rope", the goddess imparted to him "whistling, deer-like behavior." (Lakota -- F:"Sh")} {Tossed into the air were stones, which became the first butterflies (Ojibway -- "LShSh").}

19. : Jaina asterism "Recumbent lion" {In Tamoanchan, ["AIC"] "There learned men wrote new holy books :  the count of destiny, the book of years, and the book of dreams." This is the realm of goddess Itz-papalotl, the 'Obsidian Butterfly' : Brigantia (the Britannic form of Brig) is apparently goddess of ("B--B") "butterflies and moths." "Now she is the Brig who invented a whistle for signalling at night." ("2BMT" 125)"}


{A similar deadly Lakota goddess is "white female buffalo" ("LShSh").}

20. Abhijit : Jaina asterism "Ox head"


p. 15 Cold Hand "went faster than the sun." {Er-lan "Carried {like unto Huta Havya-vaha (according to the Puran.a)} Mountains and Chased the Sun" (HChM, s.v. "Kuafu", p. 155).

Er-lan's "robe was of a pale goose−yellow." (JW)}

21. S`ron.a : Jaina asterism "Yoke with buckets" (for carrying burthen) {Heraklees threatened the Sun (DCM, s.v. "Heracles", p. 200a); and served as surrogate for sky-lifter mt Atlas (DCM, s.v. "Heracles", p. 202a).} {"while Herkuna played ... the goose ... escaped and hid under a stone in a cave. Persephone chased after it" (DCM, s.v. "Hercyna").}

6. Ch.B. Owl

p. 14 "The owl found the Chee-nau-og, he told them, then he was ashamed, he hid himself, he comes by day no more."

22. S`ravis.t.ha : Jaina asterism "Birdcage" {The owl Askalaphos was hidden under a stone because he told the secret of Perse-phone (DCM, s.v. "Ascalaphus").}

7. Ch.B. Cacao

23. S`ata-bhis.aj : Jaina asterism "Flower seeds".

8. Ch.B. Leopard-Hound {(Kaleb : punning <arabi /Qaleb/ 'heart')}

p. 14 "Chee-nau-og, the makers of storms, eaters of men, with ice hearts, with hands cold as frost".

{The Titanes ate Zagreus, [DCM, s.v. "Zagreus"] "except for the heart, which was still beating." Perhaps an allusion to star kardia Leonis 'lion's heart'.}

9. Ch.B. "killer of opossums" {female opossum was dis-membred, but revived (Cora -- "MMG", p. 220)}

p. 14 "The Brothers ... stood far off from the wood-of-trees-that-walk, and shot with the arrows that came back to them."

{By means of arrows from inexhaustible quivers, the army of Jara-sandha (who had been dis-membred but revived) was on 18 occasions defeated (VP"J"). /JaRaSANdha/ may be cognate with /GeRu[H]ONeus/ the name of an adversary defeated by a champion setting forth from the orchard of the Hesperides.}

10. Oc 'Stairs'

{sea-filling pebbles of Yan Di's daughter bird-goddess Jin-wei (HChM, s.v. "Jingwei", p. 226)}

24-25. Pros.t.ha-pad : Jaina asterism is "Pool with steps" {cf. quay}

{shackle became maple-tree (HChM, s.v. "Chiyou", p. 93) : having sweet sap like unto meliai of Kronos}

p. 13 "The women had no heads. They had eyes in their breasts, they had mouths in their bellies. The women ... gave out an odour." {cf. the slain sistre of headless thorax-face Kabandha, for whom "Kaanthos, or ... Kavanthos, answers exactly to the Sanscrit Kavandha" (CI-ET&F-L, p. 142); though his sistre was merely abducted (Ibid., p. 141). /Kavandha/ is 'cask, barrel'. The Cooper (barrel-maker) River is named for confining Lake Moultrie ('moulting'[, scil. of python's skin]).}

24-25. Pros.t.ha-pad ('stool-foot') {an aequivalent to the stool of the Pythoness for oracle of Apollon at Delphoi; and "the sacred grove of" Apollon was set afire by (CI-ET&F-L, p. 141) KAWanTHos [but /KAUTHmos/ is a tree-disease (L&S) : and tree-disease "often has a foul odor" ("ETD")] son of a Melia (ash-tree nymph).} {>ien (Xin-tian) "Form Sky made eyes from his nipples and a mouth from his navel, and ... danced the Shield and Axe Dance." (CM&S 7:7)}

[10. Az. Itzcuintli : in codices, an ear] {cf. C^i-you with "ears ... like swords" (HChM, s.v. "Chiyou", p. 92)}

p. 13 "A demon was an ear, great as a hillside. The ear sucked in children ... . They fell out dry as old wood, they had moss on them". {The moss people or moss-folk (German: Moosleute, "moss-folk") are described as being "the same size as children, "grey and old-looking, hairy, and clad in moss."" (FP)} {"Moss Folk are usually described as covered in moss which they weave to clothe tree roots. They have long hair that looks like the grey fungus that grows on tree branches." ("MFGST")} {The maxim "A rolling stone gathers no moss" may refer to the two stones of a mill being rolled downhill in order to determine whether there may be the omen of their meeting to recommend marriage between the brother-sister pair who survived the deluge, in Philippine tribal mythologies. This was neverthess an unfitting marriage (cf. /MACCARoNic/ 'unsuitable matching').}

26. Revati, who listened (by means of her ears) to the divine music-concert of Brahma, and thereby became relatively of mountain-tall stature (Vis.n.u Puran.a 1:4:2, etc.), consequently married (GSI, p. 75) S`es.a the 1000-headed serpent {: cf. the Eel (Tuna) who sexually seduced goddess Hina-uri (< */Sina/ 'grey hair' + */uli/) -- a name phonetically similar to /Sinivali/ Vaidik name of a goddess of a certain moon-phase; where /Sini/ is similar to sacred-mountain name /Sinay/. "Sinivali the day before the new-moon night ..., Sinivali with Jagati ..., Sinivali is responsible for its production [of bodily development in the foetus?] (GAI, p. 102).} {"Sinivali ... in the Atharva Veda ... is declared to be consort of Vishn.u" (GAI, p. 103) : perhaps here /Vis.n.u/ is substituted for /MAKHa/ = /MAKareus/ who married (DCM, s.v. "Macareus") his own sistre.}

p. 13 "A demon was an arm {that of SaVITR. (having one prosthetic arm, according to the Puran.a)?}, long as a blacksnake".

27. As`va-yujau '2 horses yoked' (later As`vini '2 mares') {cf. intended as sistren of stallion SVaDIL-fari?}

p. 13 "A demon was a leg, tall as a tree." {Kui "was gray ... and one-legged." (S^an-hai Jin 'Mountains [and] Seas Classic' 14 -- HChM, s.v. "Kui", p. 158) {must have sprinted with springing gait : cf. 'offspring' meaning of Scots /BaiRN/} : or else

28. BhaRaN.i, whose name is cognate with Sabine (LD) /FeRoNia/, name of the mother of (DCM, s.v. "Feronia") Erulos who "had three separate lives and three bodies." {cf. the triplicity of the "three worlds" of Aja Eka-pad ('Uncreate One-Foot' -- RTC, p. 413) in maharloka ("HPJDhM") of forgetfulness (S`BhC 2:618).}

11. Chuen 'Monkey'

"a monkey with a man's face" (HChM, s.v. "Kui", p. 159) : cf. the prince as "calligrapher ... monkey" ("2QT") aboard ship.

1. Kr.ttika-s 'Pleiades' {/Ple[w]iades/'s meaning : 'sailings, navigations (by ships)'} {"Turn Ape was the first to make boats." (CM&S 18:27)}

[12. Az. Malinalli : in codices, a jaw-bone,

{possibly cf. Polynesian squid-god Tana-loa 'Jaw Lengthy', likely orginally referring to benthic fishes, carnivores whose jaw may be self-disjointed so as to allow for the swallowing of other fishes as large as itself or even larger}

another meaning of Kr.ttika-s is 'white spots' (i.e., dappling) {cf. benthic fishes who reside in a totally darksome oceanic depth, but the bodies of whose praedators have glowing (self-luminous) areas intended to attract curious victims}

along with an eye}

p. 13 "Go where the sun is not." [This place may be fruit cloaked with rind : e.g., citrus, cultivated in Hispania (a destination of "setting out ... for" by Paulos -- "WPS", p. 392) of, e.g., the CARPetani and of the TURDuli {: cf. Magh TUReD of Balor. TURDus is (in Latin) the thrush, which, in Tolkien's The Hobbit telleth of the flying dragon in the moon ("WhSThH") : Flying Dragon in the Moon” is a famous dish in Yili area of Xinjiang ..., which is ... “sea horse stewed with eggs”." ("W-KDNAM"). Citrons "were guarded by the dragon of Massylia." (M:E XIII:XXXVII).

yet another meaning of Kr.ttika-s is 'vellum-parchments' {"cloak ... with KARPos ['Fruit'], ... especially the parchments." (2nd Timotheos 4:13)} {One of the Kr.ttika-s is INVAKa = Enu[h]o[w]i the mother (DG:AG 1.475-6 -- "M&ThM", p. 69) of INVus, cf. INNEACH co-commander with (LI, s.v. "Mythological Cycle", p. 369a, cf. "2BMT" 50) Balor of an armada consisting of "a bridge of ships all the way from the Hebrides to Ireland." . Cf. the bridge of consisting ships ordered (by Xerxes), as surrogate for land-bridge Lektonia (from promontory Lekton ['collected; counted; bedded'] to Dolopia paeninsula).}.}

14. Ix 'Woman'

p. 13 "he rolled away, bleeding. His blood made biting, small beasts." {Small biting beasts (rodents) are often said to be the cause of the moon's waning : "mice ... eat the moon" (At.t.hana Jataka = Jataka # 425).}

2. Rohin.i "girl (in whom menstruation has just commenced ...)" (S-ED) : Rohin.i causeth "the moon to suffer from a wasting disease, and ... to ... wane" (MSU, p. 77).

[14. Az. Ocelotl]

p. 11 "he was all head." {Zapotec god Cociyo hath the "tongue of a snake" ("UFC"), as likewise hath the god in CBM, p. 25 upper right : the latter emanating knives like unto the skull in CBM, p. 18 lower registre.} {cf. Pupua-lenalena : /pupua/ 'cephalopod-lure' + /lenalena/ 'quite yellow'}

3.`iras 'wild head' {cf. Hellenic /morgos/ 'wicker cart'; /amorgis/ 'mallow, Malva sylvestris' (leafy vegetable, eaten boiled; and also yielding yellow dye : cf., e.g., yellow tzitzimitl ('spider' -- Death's-Head Spider?) having fragmented thread in CBM, p. 18 lower registre.} {cf. deity Kane-i-ka-pua-lena ('he>i-banana in the flower yellow') (LOH, p. 183)}

15. Men

p. 10 "they learned to counteract the bad magic" {Pupua-lenalena was countreacted and captured.}

4. Ardra 'fresh ginger' {which is reputed in China to repell and overcome all evil magic}

p. 9 "They learned the ceremonials" {as likewise did the Cheyenne legendary couple, likewise in a cavern ("PMGMD").}

[next after tathagata-s Tis.ya and Pus.ya is Vipas`yin, whose name is reminiscent of the meditation-technique to be learnt]

16. Cib

p. 9 "the fetish each was to wear under his left arm" {Conch was worn on necklace by Pupua-lenalena.}

4. Bahu '[fore]arm'

p. 9 After being eviscerated, their organs were restored to them

5. Punar-vasu 'again prosperous' {cf. >iyob (>iyob 42:11-12)}

p. 9 They were dosed (by the council of animal-deities) with a soporific drug, and thereupon slept for a full month

6. Pus.ya 'blossom" : the blossom is comestible of the nimba-tree, a sedative plant identified in Bauddha literature as the bodhi-tree of tathagata Tis.ya

17. Caban

p. 8 "they fell through the bottom

of it into a cave" (hollow Earth)

6. Tis.ya is commonly known as "crocodile bark", a hollow tree {similar to the baobab}

p. 8 "the women made love to the Brothers"

7. As`les.a-s 'embracers'

p. 7 "give it"

8. Magha 'gift'

1. Imox 'Beetle'

p. 7 "scalped" (be scalped leaving a large open wound). {cf. "Ranunculus bulbosus. ... feeling of something running and creeping on the hairy scalp, like a beetle running about." (PC, p. 569a)}

9-10. Phalguni : /phalgu/ 'wild ginger', its root "as a poultice to treat open wounds" (SW, p. 84); its blossom attracting insects which feed on (SW, p. 83) "carrion" (which could include carrion-beetles).

2. Ik (Igh) 'Wind'

p. 6 As for Bear-man, they became hostile to him because "there was grease in his tracks." {Ursine grease is recommended for praedicting the weather ("GW&FBG").}

11. Hasta (cognate with Latin /hostilis/ 'hostile'; and with English /gust/, a sudden change in the wind) {ka-Puni was leaping on candlenut [greasy nut] tree (LOH, p. 105).}

3. Akbal

p. 6 "he made the spear stand alone, he made it walk, he made it bend toward the old man." {This is the mythic self-leaning direction-indicating Choctaw pole (referred to as /liahona/ in 1st Nephi 16 and in Alma 37) inserted every day into the ground into order to direct the migration.}

12. Citra 'variegated', often figured as (A&ACS, Fig. 21, p. 180, from AR, vol. 9, facing p. 323) pearl {According to Tahitian cosmology, pearls "illuminate [the] heaven" ("TUP") of Tane, in Haw. Kane who "dug his spear" (HM, p. 65). These are "black pearls" (LPRS&T) : reminiscent of the iridescent-black "rainbow anaconda". Cf. the "rainbow" bridge leading to the "dragon" about to swallow the "Pearl-of-Heaven" ("MShPP", p. 38).}

p. 6 "tore the clothes"

13. Svati 'swathe (swaddle)' {Kua-ko 'tassel of bamboo' was home of Pupua-lenalena (FCHF-L, p. 558).}

p. 6 "tore the drum-head" {"In it was a noted drum. The name of that temple was Pakaaluna." (LOH, p. 106) /paka>a 'anecdote' + /luna/ 'high'}

14. Vi-s`akha [for the sake of legendary princess Vis`akha, "have a drum" ("SV" 109)]

p. 6 Goddesses became weevils when "spears caught the blows."

{Aimed at Kawelo, "the warrior wife catches the club with her snaring stick and it falls harmless." (HM, p. 406)}

4. Kan 'Ripe' [Highl. Maya Ghat 'Net']

{U-ga-ya-fuki-aezu 'Unfinished Cormorant Feather Thatching', according to the Kojiki.} {Cormac viewed 5 salmon feeding on purple nuts which had ripened and fallen into a pool at a silvern house, whose roof was ("CALP") "half-thatched with the wings of white birds."} {These amputated bird-wings in the Land of Promise are aequivalent to divine bird Jat.ayus's wing, which was amputated (by vimana-navigating Ravan.a [cf. /Ravenna/, name of the Byzantine capital of Padania], according to the Rama-ayana [cf. /Roma/, Visi-Gothic capital]).}

{Kawelo hath as his (LOH, p. 178) "heiau, or temple, Lualualei [/lualua/ = /luelue/ 'fishing-net'] in Waianae. "This is said to have been a very ancient temple belonging to the chief Kakuhihewa [/kuhihewa/ 'to misrecognize, to mistake a person for someone else']."" "Kawelo thatcheth his house with bird-feathers (HM, p. 408); or his rat-brother thatcheth (LOH, p. 179) "with the beautiful feathers of the red and yellow birds." Kawelo trappeth fish-monstre Uhu-maka>ika>i (HD, s.v. "Uhu" : /uhu/ vegetarian 'parrotfish' + /maka>ika>i/ 'strolling tourist') in net (LOH, p. 180); and he dieth in Kaua>i when thrown over cliff (HM, p. 410).} {With the cattle given by Cormac in exchange for a grail, cf. Theseus's (to indicate that he was misrecognized) hurling ox over a house, and evading a poisoned cup. After meeting Minos (who had pursued the net-rescued goddess Diktunne), Theseus sought out the Mino-tauros; and died when he was pushed over the brink of a cliff.}

p. 6 "mill was ... set on a stone." {Cf. how "Krsna was fastened to the husking mill" ("PM&TI--TA") when he liberated (from being yaks.a-s, tree-spirits, bound by Narada) Nala-kubera and Man.i-griva} {In pursuit of Bo,lverk ('bulwark'), the eagle-god flew to the heights of the wall surrounding A`s-gard.}

15. Anu-radha : the wife (i.e., Rukmin.i) acquired (by Acyuta, who when deserted by her became Vitthala "black stone") "after Radha" (whom he was with while he was Pandura-anga "fair-skinned" -- "SPPVCR") {In pursuit of ka-Puni ('the surround'), the god of Wao-lani ('inland sky') overflew Nu>u-anu ('height-chill') praecipice (LOH, p. 107).}

5. Chic-chan

p. 5 "old women" are slain for "their thigh-bones." {The semen removed from her own thigh by Athene was employed by her to impraegnate goddess Gai[h]a (< */Jesa/).}

16. Jayis.t.ha-ghni 'slayeress of goddess Eldest' (later known as /Jyes.t.ha/) = [Awestan goddess] Jeh (< */Jesa/) the "whore" : should be "surrogate mother"?]

6. Cimi

p. 4 ""Take from the heap of roots on the ground," said the old women." {Deities assembled a Ha>i-inoa (LOH, p. 108). /ha>i/ 'confess' /inoa/ 'a name'}

17. Mula-barhan.i (later Mula -- VVS`J, p. 220) 'Uprooting' {When mandrakes are uprooted, they shriek. [Is this shriek their name?]}

7. Ceh 'Deer' {Wic^ol ritual "Deer-Tail"}

p. 4 "deer's horns; ... he spat in the ... mouth" {Though "asleep in a corner, the sacred serpents licked"; but when "sleep in the sanctuary occurred [While "building a temple", silence was imposed in Kawai-hae (LOH, p. 109). /kawai/ 'drowsy'] ... Apollo spat in her open mouth ... no one would believe her" (EP, s.v. "Cassandra", p. 41b).}

18-19. 'Invincible', name of staff made of palas`a (Butea frondosa)-wood {"Moduga trees (Butea frondosa)" are sacred to those "with wet clothes" [With this madefaction 'moistening', cf. the madness falsely ascribed to Kassandra.] at the sanctuary, so that due to "tails", "their creditors" may be disbelieved (F-L11"HN", p. 218).}

8. Lamat

p. 4 "it took away the skin ... tied on his shoulders."

20. Abhi-jit : /abhiji/ 'acquire by conquaest' {"The dog excelled in his skill as a thief, stealing ... tapa cloth" (LOH, p. 109).}

9. Mul-uc

p. 4 "it changed to a louse" {cf. the fleas endemic with hounds, and often transmitted from them to their human owners}

{In Kaua>i, Pikoi co-operateth with "the dog-man Pupualenalena, whose skill is equal with his own." (HM, p. 427 -- "KS"}

[9. Az. Atl 'Water']

p. 4 "They walked by the lake. Black Wolf made himself into a vapour. The vapour rolled before the wind".

{Pikoi said : "that place where fog rests? Just above it is a spring." ("PHNTI")}

p. 3 speared a "water-rat" : "the rat-skin ... At night he hung ... on the spear."

{"Pikoi a ... wonderful shooter of rats." ("PHNTI")} {Pikoi shot, "entangling the whiskers of three rats." (LOH, p. 164)}

p. 3 "he made himself small, as fish-spawn he went down the river." {After spawning, in many species of fishes the spawners become numb and die.}

{Pikoi's sistre married in Manoa : /manoanoa/ 'numb from drinking >awa' (into >awa, "fish will not enter", HD), cf. the >awa-imbibing by Puapua-lenalena's master (HM, p. 350)}

p. 2 "Naked" {cf. >adam & H.awwah naked until fig-tree leaves clad them} {Pikoi was (HM, p. 426) found (naked?) on the beach at Kou [name of an orange-flowering tree] in O>ahu. In O>ahu, his sister had married (LOH, p. 158) Pa-wa>a ('touching a canoe').}

21. As`va-ttha 'fig-tree' {While Pikoi and his father Alala were sailing toward O>ahu, the great squid Kaka-he>e was touching the canoe, "trying to seize them" (LOH, p. 159) from aboard it [similarly to the seizing, by Skulle, of sailors from aboard ship].}

p. 2 "gave them sinew from his leg." {"The zun Bhagat who gets possessed becomes stiff and cannot walk" (M&LW, p. 58).}

21. S`ron.a 'lame' : this "lame" (M&LW, p. 58) goddess is Kansari (goddess of cultivated grains, Ibid., p. 57), arranging that (loc. cit.) "the lame will walk."

p. 2 "sinking with her island beneath the waves." {metaphor for 'receding into bye-gone history'?}

22. S`ravis.t.ha < */S`LaWI-/ {cognate with */S`Le^sawi/ > /KLei[h]o[W]I/, name of Mousa of 'history'}

p. 1 "looked from her eyes so terribly" (descriptive of shamanic healer who diagnoseth through shamanic vision?)

23. S`ata-bhis.aj '100 physicians' (implying a shamanic curer, better than any other 100 physicians?)

p. 1 Goddess He-nau-ee ('Mother') fell from the sky onto sand, just after "rocks were ground into sand". {cf. goddess Hine-hau-one ('Woman Made [of] Sand'), who excreted (LWhW, p. 140) the first "urine."}

24-5. Pros.t.ha-pad 'stool (backless chair) foot' {cf. the stool lifted off the floor by a daughter of Geirro,d under it (To`rs-dra`pa 13), while her sistre excreted (pissed out) a river of "urine" (Ibid. 4).}

VIN&S = Arthur Anthony Macdonell & Arthur Berriedale Keith : Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. London : John Murray, 1912. &

F:"Sh" = Brian Froud : "Shapeshifter".

"AIC" = "Archive for the ‘Itzpapalotl’ Category".

"B--B" = "Brighid -- Bridestones".

DG:AG = Diomedes Grammaticus : Ars Grammatica 1.475–476. 

"M&ThM" = T.P. Wiseman : "The Minucii and Their Monument". In :- Imperium Sine Fine : T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman Republic. Franz Steiner, 1996.

"2BMT" = "Second Battle of Mag Tuired".

"LShSh" = "Lakota Shape Shifters".

At.t.hana Jataka = H.T. Francis and R.A. Neil (transll.) : The Jataka. 1897. Vol. III, pp. 282-4.

MSU = Richard L. Thompson : Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Govardhan Hill Publ, 2000.

"UFC" = "Urn in the Form of Cociyo".

"PMGMD" = "Pyramid Mesa -- Great Medicine Dance".


JW = Wu C^en-en : Journey to the West

"MMG" = Kay Almere Read & Jason J. Gonza`lez : Mesoamerican Mythology : a Guide. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, 2000.

VP"J" = Vis.n.u "Jarasandha".

CI-ET&F-L = Walter Keating Kelly : Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-Lore. London : Chapman & Hall, 1863.

"ETD" = "Ecology of Tree Diseases".

CM&S = Anne Birrell (translatrix) : The Classic of Mountains and Seas. Penguin Bks, London, 1999.

FP = Thomas Firminger Thiselton Dyer : Folk-Lore of Plants. London : Chatto & Windus, 1889.

"MFGST" = "Moss Folk : Guardian Spirits of the Trees".

Vis.n.u Puran.a

GSI = A. Whitney Sanford : Growing Stories from India : Religion and the Fate of Agriculture. Univ Pr of KY, Lexingon, 2012.

GAI = P. K. Agrawala : Goddesses in Ancient India. Abhinav Publ, New Delhi, 1986.

"1RG" = Stella Kramrisch : "'The One' in the R.g Veda". In :- S. Radhakrishnan (ed.) : Rabindranath Tagore : a Centenary. Sahitrya Akademi, New Delhi, 1961. pp. 410-22.

"HPJDhM" = "Holy Places of Jaiva Dharma : Maharloka".

S`BhC = "S`rimad Bhagavatam Commentary".

S-ED = Monier Monier-Williams : Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1899.

"2QT" = "2nd Qalandar's Tale" in 1001 Nights.

"WPS" = Louis O'Donovan : "Was St. Paul in Spain?" AMER CATH QUART REV 25 (1900):391-4.

"WhSThH" = "What is the Significance of the Thrush in the Hobbit?"

"W-KDNAM" = "Well-known Dishes Named After the Moon".

M:E XIII = Martialis : Epigrams, lib. 13.

LI = Da`ithi` O` hO`ga`n : The Lore of Ireland. Boydell Pr, Woodbridge (Suffolk), 2006.

PC = Robert Ellis Dudgeon : The Pathogenetic Cyclopaedia. London : Hahnemann Soc, 1850.

SW = Jack Sanders : The Secrets of Wildflowers. 2003.

"GW&FBG" = "Gordon Wimsatt and His Famous Bear Grease".

LOH = William Drake Westervelt : Legends of Old Honolulu. Boston : George H. Ellis Co.; London : Constable & Co, 1915.

A&ACS = Hugh A. Moran & David H. Kelley : The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs. 2nd edn. Daily Pr, Palo Alto (CA), 1969.


"TUP = Erica Ronas : "Transcript of Untitled Prezi".

LPRS&T = Craig McLachlan; Brett Atkinson; Celeste Brash : Lonely Planet Rarotonga, Samoa & Tonga.

"MShPP" = "Moon that Shone on the Porcelain Pagoda". In :- Bertha Palmer Lane : Tower Legends. Beacon Pr, Boston, 1932. pp. 33-40. copied at

"SV" = "The Story of Vis`akha". (in the Dharma-pada)

FCHF-L = "Legend of Pupualenalena". In :- Fornander Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-lore. pp. 558-561.

HRL = Martha Warren Beckwith (translatrix) : The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai. 33RD ANNUAL REP OF THE BUREAU OF AMER ETHNOLOGY, Washington (DC), 1918. & &

"CALP" = "Cormac's Adventures in the Land of Promise".!topic/alt.religion.druid/K6ErKhqOjGo

"PM&TI--TA" = Shakti M. Gupta : "Plant Myths & Traditions in India -- Terminalia Arjuna".

"SPPVCR" = "Secret of Pandharpur, Panduranga Vitthala and His Consort Rukmini".

VVS`J = Arun Kumar Upadhyay : Vedic View of S`ri Jagannatha. Rashtriya Sanskrita Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, 2006.

EP = Geoffrey Ashe : Encyclopedia of Prophecy. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (CA), 2001.

F-L11"HN" = M. N. Venkataswami : "Hindu Notes". TRANSACTIONS OF THE FOLK-LORE SOC, XI (1900):218-19.

"KS" = "Kupua Stories" = HM, XXIX.

"PHNTI" = "Pikoi Helps Needy as He Tours Isle".

M&LW = Avellino Remedios : Mythos and Logos of the Warlis. CASTES AND TRIBES OF INDIA, 4. Concept Publ Co, New Delhi, 1998.

LWhW = H. T. Whatahoro (transl. by S. Percy Smith) : The Lore of the Whare-Wānanga. Polynesian Soc, New Plymouth (N.Z.), 1913.


{The ash-tree nymph who was mother of Amukos (/amukter/ 'noseless') by (CI-ET&F-L, p. 142) Genethlios ('divus gentilis') must be the nose-amputated S`urpa-nakha, sistre of Ravan.a.}

{Because ash-tree sap was said to have dripped in the aira (Golden Age) of Kronos, therefore the Meliai must have flourished in that aira. To restore (to the mythology of the Aira Khruse) correct Titan-nomenclature, do alter the chronologically impossible name /Apollon/ to /Koi[w]os/ (Pauran.ik /S`es.a/), etc. etc., in the myths concerning the Meliai.}

{/Innea-/ is an acceptable variant of /InDa-/ on account of /Inv-/'s being based (according to S:CAe 6.775 -- AeCMTG, pp. 24, 31-2) on /ineunD-/.}

{10. Itzcuintli = Ira-waru, the hound; however, he is inapposite to Revati, for it is stated (MM&L, s.v. "Hina-uri") to be an error to identify him as the mate of Hina-uri, for his mate is instead Hine-te-iwaiwa.}

{"The Story of Vis`akha". (in the Dharma-pada) is more extended along the naks.tra-s, from (18-19) to (13) Svati, including : (51) "got your garments and ornaments wet" (= 18-19th "with wet clothes"); (182) "gave away to be slaves sons such as Jali [/jali/ 'netted' = Highland Maya 4th Ghat 'Net'], daughters such as Kanhajina" (/kahan/ 'manu-antara' -- where the implied feminine nomenclature for a manu is exemplified in the manu-name /S`raddha-deva/ named for his wife); (205) "flesh from her own thigh" (p. 6 "they played on the hide with the thigh-bones, ... Beasts and birds heard the drumming ...; they

came" -- cf. HChM, p. 158, "its hide ... struck with the bone of the Thunder God," so that, HChM, p. 159, "all animals would follow his melody and dance.").}

{Mananna`n's explanation that the five streams viewed by Cormac in the Land of Promise are the 5 senses, applieth likewise to the 5 streams in the altarpiece Garden of Earthly Delights by Hier-onumos Bosch; and the huge birds in the foreground pool in Bosch's scene, to Cormac's fledged roofs.}

{15. Anu-radha : Acyuta's pulling down (according to the Bhagavata Upa-puran.a) of two trees while he was fastened to a mill, is parallel with S^ims^o^n's pulling down of (S^apat.i^m 16:29-30) pilastres after being compelled to work (S^apat.i^m 16:21) a mill.}

{7. Ceh : the deer-antlered's "white scales" may correspond to the "white raiment" (Apokalupsis of Ioannes 3:18) for those fitfully "cold or hot" (AI 3:15), lest (AI 3:16) "I spue thee out of my mouth." (This expectoration of verbiage alludeth to a prophet's vehemence becoming regarded (by auditors) as "blowing hot and cold".)}

S:CAe = Servius : Commentary on Aeneis.

AeCMTG = Julian Ward Jones, Jr. : An Aeneid Commentary of Mixed Type : the Glosses in MSs Harley 4946 and Ambrosianus G111 inf. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1996.

[written late Dec 2014. I had written a praeliminary version of the kalendaric correlations with this founding myth of the Midewiwin Medicine-Society a couple of years earlier. Added Jan 10 2015 are the Jaina asterisms ostensibly aequivalent to Vaidik naks.atra-s 19-25; and ChB 6-10.]