Large Scale Structure of the [material] Universe (links to various articles)

"The maps display a rich structure with a foam-like pattern, containing possible walls or filaments with long strands of galaxies, clusters, and large empty regions."

"the universe as a whole looks more like - foam as produced by soap bubbles. The galaxies are found along the sheets of the bubbles with huge empty voids between them."

p. 48 "Where the walls ‘merges’ {read "merge"}, there are especially a lot of galaxies (superclusters). These regions of enhanced concentration of galaxies form in the space a sort of long fibers (‘chains’ or ‘filaments’ [2]). Inside the cells between the walls there are ‘voids’, in which the density of galaxies

at least ten times less than the average. Some kind of analogue of such a structure can be

foam of soap bubbles."

p. 49 "The filaments and voids can form extended relatively flat local structures, called the

great walls’. The nearest ‘wall’ goes a long arc through the southern constellations Hydra

- Centaurus - Telescopium - Pavo - Indus. The constituent galaxies ... are at distance of at least 20-30 million lightyears away. This ‘wall’ contains the Virgo cluster, as well as all the Local Supercluster, at

the periphery of which the Local Group of galaxies, including our Galaxy, are located."

2. "Already the first redshift surveys revealed a rich variety of structures in the galaxy universe. These have been characterized by astronomers using terms such as binaries, triplets, groups, rich, regular, and irregular clusters, walls, superclusters, voids, filaments, cells, soap bubbles, sponges, great attractors, clumps, concentrations, associations . . . "

"DSSU (Dynamic Steady State Universe)"

"The model’s predicted cellular structure is compared with observed cosmic-scale structure ... ."

"The large-scale structure of the Universe : tessellating rhombic dodecahedral cosmic cells.  Galaxies and galactic clusters form along the lines of force."

@14. "It appears that our Universe is structured as Voronoi cells and the shape of the structures is predicted to be dodecahedral.15

Now the the Voronoi cell is a polyhedron.  Astronomers have recently discovered that the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe resembles a network of such polyhedra. Most galactic clusters seem to be located on the boundaries of neighboring Voronoi cells. This pattern has been called the Voronoi foam model of the universe because it looks somewhat like a giant bubble bath.16"

@30. "Cosmic bubbles may take the shape of either the rhombic or the rhombic-trapezoidal dodecahedron."

@31. "The building block of the DSSU is the dodecahedron – the closest-packed polyhedron with 12 identical rhombus faces, 24 edges, and 14 nodes. Each node is a center of gravity of a rich galaxy cluster.

There is observable presence of at least one super-giant elliptical galaxy at each node.

14 galaxy clusters are linked by 24 filamentous arms.  The arms represent the extensions of various galaxy clusters.

Cosmic cells are never isolated.  Nodes are always shared with neighboring cells."

@32. "Minor nodes are where three filamentous arms meet.

There are eight minor nodes.  The minor nodes absorb material from four filaments.

These correspond to four-branch galaxy clusters.

Major nodes are where four filamentous arms meet.

There are six major nodes.  The major nodes absorb material from eight filaments.

These correspond to eight-branch galaxy clusters."

Cosmological structure of the material Universe in terms of Cosmic Voids enclosed within adjoiningly interconnected Great Walls,

each such Great Wall composed of Super-Clustres of Galaxies

(each such Super-Clustre being centred upon its own Great Attractor),

each such Super-Clustre composed of Quasar-Groups,

each such Quasar-Group being composed of Quasars

(each such of Quasar being the gravitational centre of its own Galaxy)

such a Cosmic Void

such a Great Wall

(specificly known as CfA2

Sloan Great Wall and South Pole Wall

South Pole Wall

types of Galaxy-Filament, which consist of gravitationally bound galaxies

List of largest cosmic structures

such a Great Attractor

such Super-Clustres

such a Quasar-Group


(where and when obscured by galactic-core dust-clouds, this type of object is popularly [but misleadingly] known as a "Black Hole" -- despite the fact that it can be readily detected, when viewed through infrared-sensitive telescopes mounted in orbit in outer space, via its intense emission of infrared light, typically aequivalent to a large multiple of its own galaxy's arms' emission of visible light)

As for a quasar unobscured by any galactic-core dust-cloud, it can be even 10,000 times brighter than the total emission of perhaps 100,000,000,000 stars comprised in its galaxy's arms. Quasars of this character may be the actuality of those observed (by their most extreme of "red-shift") as most distant of cosmic objects, which are conventionally considered to be ordinary galaxies; but which, if 10,000 brighter than conventionally considered, must be at a distance 100 times more than that conventionally aestimated, viz., 1.5 trillion light-years distant instead of 15 billion light-years distant.

Each pulsar is the remnant of supernova, emitting a ray of luminance from its twain magnetic poles.